Thus, in the computer industry, Dell builds-to-order thereby cutting the costs associated with inventory obsolescence. In fact, the term "Supply Chain" first appears in the literature as an inventory management approach.
The earliest work in this area, although the term "supply chain" was not in vogue, was by Geoffrion and Graves . They are often difficult to solve to optimality.
Rough Cut Methods These models form the bulk of the supply chain literature, and typically deal with the more operational or tactical decisions. Although current research in multi-echelon based supply chain inventory problems shows considerable promise in reducing inventories with increased customer service, the studies have several notable limitations.
The relationships are the strongest between players who directly pass the baton, but the entire team needs to make a coordinated effort to win the race. Purchasing contracts are often negotiated with very little information beyond historical buying patterns.
Finally, Arntzen, Brown, Harrison, and Trafton  provide the most comprehensive deterministic model for supply chain management. Time elements include manufacturing lead times and transit times. By only keeping a few primary colors as the core inventory and generating new shades based on actual customer demand, there is scope to reduce inventory and improve customer responsiveness simultaneously.
Production Decisions The strategic decisions include what products to produce, and which plants to produce them in, allocation of suppliers to plants, plants to DC's, and DC's to customer markets.
It is the traditional question of "What If. For a review the reader is directed to Vollman et al. Therefore customer service levels, and geographic location play vital roles in such decisions.
Coordination problems arise because of conflicting objectives or poor information flows. The thrust of the rough cut models is the development of inventory control policies, considering several levels or echelons together.
These decisions assume the existence of the facilities, but determine the exact path s through which a product flows to and from these facilities. Cohen and Lee  present a normative model for resource deployment in a global manufacturing and distribution network.
In sum, there does not seem to yet be a comprehensive model that is representative of the true nature of material flows in the supply chain. They are often difficult to solve to optimality.
These models have come to be known as "multi-level" or "multi-echelon" inventory control models. They can also be in-process between locations. These models typically cover the four major decision areas described earlier, and focus more on the design aspect of the supply chain; the establishment of the network and the associated flows on them.
There are four major decision areas in supply chain management:. Supply chain management is an important subject for global businesses and small businesses alike. Learn how to create an efficient supply chain in any economic climate and deal with issues with your supply chain operation.
View Introduction to Supply Chain Management - Course Schedule - Fall elleandrblog.com from BUISNESS at Rutgers University. Importance of Supply Chain Management Inthe US companies spent $1 trillion (10% of GNP) on supply-related activities (movement, storage, and control of products across supply chains).
d p a 1) Introduction to Supply Chain Management • The supplychain: an introduction – Definition of a supplychain – Supplychain or logistics – what’s the difference? Introduction to Supply Chain Management. Share Flip Pin Email By Gary Marion.
Updated April 23, If your company sells a thing to a customer, your company most likely has a supply chain. And that supply chain impacts almost every other business function. Supply Chain Management. As you saw in the video, supply chain management is the process of managing the movement of the raw materials and parts from the beginning of production through delivery to the elleandrblog.com many organizations, operational supply chain decisions are made hundreds of times each day affecting how products are developed, manufactured, moved, and sold.An introduction to supply chain management